Nile was born from the ashes of a first band called Morriah in which Karl Sanders played since the 1980s. After two record albums (Festivals of Atonement and Ramses Bringer of War), Nile released with Relapse Records in 1998 his first album, Amongst the Catacombs of Nephren-Ka (character devised by the American writer HPLovecraft). The next album, Black Seeds of Vengeance, helps to boost the band's reputation, and the album is named the 2000 album of the year by UK magazine Terrorizer.
The consecration will come with the release of their third album, In Their Darkened Shrines. The band's leader, Karl Sanders, also released [Quand?] A solo project, entitled Saurian Meditation, a collection of oriental music, to escape from extreme music to a more relaxing one.
In May 2006, Nile signed a contract with Nuclear Blast. On February 26, 2007, Nile entered the studio to record her fifth album, Ithyphallic, their first album at Nuclear Blast. Karl Sanders confirms its release for June 29, but the album is postponed to July 20, 2007. After its release, the album has 4,600 copies sold, and a one-way ticket to the 162nd place of the Billboard 200. In December 2007 they shoot with Six Feet Under, Finntroll and Belphegor.
In June 2009, Nile entered the studio for the recording of her sixth album, Those Whom the Gods Detest. The album is published in November the same year, and is well received by the specialized press. It has 3,500 copies sold the first week in the United States and reached 60th place on the Billboard 200.
In 2010, the band toured the United States with Immolation. On October 21, 2010, Chris Lollis is confirmed as a new permanent bass player at Nile, after four years of session. On October 11, 2011, Goomba Music publishes Worship the Animal a new version of the band's demos recorded in 1994. On December 6, 2011, Nile announced the release of a new album in 2012. On February 4, 2012, Karl Sanders announced on his page Facebook the arrival of a new bassist, Todd Ellis, who will contribute to the new album. The next day, he reveals he lost contact with Chris Lollis during the recordings and the writing of the album, and will decide after three months of silence to replace him. On November 22, 2012, Nile publishes the video of Enduring The Eternal Molestation of Flame. At the end of 2012, the band made several concerts with Morbid Angel, Kreator and Fueled by Fire. In 2013, the band participated in the 70,000 Tons of Metal Festival.
On February 9, 2015, Todd Ellis leaves the group. On July 24, 2015, the group announces a new album, entitled What Should Not Be Unearthed, for August 28th.
In February 2017 the group announces the replacement of Dallas Toler-Wade by Brian Kingsland.